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A CLOSER LOOK AT NBTXR3

01

NBTXR3 enhances the effects of radiotherapy by increasing the effective dose of a standard X-ray. This approach builds on a standard cancer treatment and a well-established physical mechanism of action.

Radiotherapy treatment is currently limited by toxicity or adverse events resulting from damage to healthy tissue and the difference between therapeutic effect and adverse events is referred to as the “therapeutic window”. NBTXR3 aims to open the therapeutic by increasing the radiotherapy dose in the tumor without increasing damage to healthy tissue as shown in the second figure (hover or tap).

02

NBTXR3 is a nanoparticles of 50 nm in diameter consisting of a Hafnium-Oxide (HfO2) core coupled with a negatively charged surface coating. NBTXR3 can absorb X-rays used in any standard radiotherapy to deliver a higher efficient dose.

03

The nanoparticles are inert and are only “switched on” upon exposure to any standard source of radiation and return to their inactive state upon removal of the X-ray energy source. The therapeutic effect is therefore controlled by the administration of external radiotherapy. One administration before the first session of radiotherapy is sufficient for the whole treatment course.

04

Traditional radiotherapy relies upon the absorption of ionizing radiation by molecules, most often water molecules, ultimately resulting in the formation of free radicals. Intracellular free radicals cause damage to a wide range of biological molecules including DNA which ultimately leads to cell death.

The NanoXray particles enhance the effects of radiotherapy dose deposition by an order of magnitude by increasing the amount of free electrons and, hence, the efficiency of free radical formation by ionizing radiation in the cell containing nanoparticles (hover or tap second figure).

05

Traditional radiotherapy relies upon the absorption of ionizing radiation by molecules, most often water molecules, ultimately resulting in the formation of free radicals. Intracellular free radicals cause damage to a wide range of biological molecules including DNA which ultimately leads to cell death.

The NanoXray particles enhance the effects of radiotherapy dose deposition by an order of magnitude by increasing the amount of free electrons and, hence, the efficiency of free radical formation by ionizing radiation in the cell containing nanoparticles (figure 3).

06

The absorption is a local effect and as the product distribution is limited to the tumor after intratumoral injection, there is no additional toxicity provided to the healthy tissue. To achieve the same local effect without nanopartciles the dose of radiotherapy would need to be increased by 9 fold.

First: Conventional Radiotherapy. Tumor cell (bottom) without nanoparticles – once radiotherapy is applied the dose is the same across the whole cell. Second: Radiotherapy with NanoXray. Tumor cell with nanoparticles (black spots) – the nanoparticles absorb the energy very efficiently and increase the effect of the radiotherapy dose. To achieve the same local effect without nanoparticles the radiotherapy dose would need to be increased by 9 fold, e.g. from 2 Gy per session to 18 Gy.

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